Tuesday, May 28, 2024

Role of Senior citizens

Title: "The Vital Role of Senior Citizens: Navigating Wisdom, Experience, and Legacy in Modern Society"

Chapter 1: Embracing the Silver Revolution
- Introduction to the growing demographic of senior citizens
- Exploring the changing perceptions of aging in society
- Understanding the importance of acknowledging and celebrating the contributions of seniors

Chapter 2: The Wisdom of Experience
- Delving into the wealth of knowledge and experience seniors possess
- Highlighting the value of intergenerational knowledge transfer
- Case studies of seniors making significant contributions in various fields

Chapter 3: Rethinking Retirement
- Challenging traditional notions of retirement
- Exploring alternative lifestyles and pursuits for seniors
- Strategies for staying mentally, physically, and socially active in retirement

Chapter 4: Senior Citizens and Community Engagement
- Examining the role of seniors in community building and volunteerism
- Showcasing initiatives where seniors are actively involved in local projects and organizations
- The impact of seniors on fostering social cohesion and intergenerational bonds

Chapter 5: Navigating Health and Wellness
- Addressing the unique health challenges faced by seniors
- Strategies for maintaining physical health and mobility in later years
- Mental health and emotional well-being: coping with loneliness, grief, and mental illness

Chapter 6: Legacy and Continuity
- The importance of preserving and passing down family histories and traditions
- Exploring ways seniors can leave a lasting legacy for future generations
- Reflections on the significance of maintaining connections with one's roots and heritage

Chapter 7: Advocacy and Policy Reform
- Advocating for the rights and needs of seniors in society
- Addressing issues such as elder abuse, ageism, and access to healthcare and social services
- Strategies for creating age-friendly communities and promoting active aging

Chapter 8: Embracing Aging with Grace and Dignity
- Cultivating a positive attitude towards aging
- Finding meaning and purpose in later life
- Celebrating the joys and blessings of growing older

Conclusion: Charting the Future of Aging
- Looking ahead to the future of senior citizens in society
- Encouraging continued dialogue, research, and innovation in aging-related issues
- Embracing the potential for seniors to continue making valuable contributions to society for generations to come

Acknowledgments: Gratitude to all those who contributed to the creation of this ebook, including seniors who shared their stories and insights.

About the Author: Brief bio of the author, highlighting their expertise or experience in the field of gerontology, social work, or related areas.

This ebook aims to shed light on the multifaceted roles and contributions of senior citizens in modern society, challenging stereotypes and promoting a more inclusive and age-friendly world for all.

Monday, June 13, 2022

मेरो मन

मन-मनै मन्त्र जापे जस्तो,
तिम्रो विहल स्वरहरुले,
संखनाद गराऊदछ।
रंगमंचमा खेल  सकिएर 
निरन्तर मेरो आत्माको
पूर्णता माथी तालि बजाउदछ,
मूक् दर्शक बनेर ।
ए मन...
तिम्रा लोलुप्त वैंसका आवेगले
मेरो हृदयमा,
न्यानो आघात
तिम्रा छड्के नजरले
अझ गहिरो पार्दछ ।

मेरो देहको एकान्त भूमिमा,
इच्छा गरेयौ भने 
राख्न सक्छौ
तिम्रो निस्वार्थ हातहरु,
आत्माभित्रको असन्तुष्टिका विरहमा 
पाइलाराख्ने मनोरथ छ भने ।
तिम्रा मनका मानचित्र भित्र
असम्भवका सीमारेखा 
मेटाउन सक्छौ  भने. 
अनि तिम्रो काँधको 
सिरानी लगाएर
एक क्षण भए पनि 
सुस्ताउने ओछियान बनाई दिने भए ।

मलाई कुनै भिष्म प्रतिज्ञाले,
फूलहरुका मृदु मुस्कानले,
स्वर्णाभुषणको आभाले  होइन,
तिम्रो अन्तर्मनबाट तरंगित
स्नेहशील अध्यायबाट 
प्रस्फुटित संकेतले जित्न सक्छ
मेरो शरीर, मेरो आत्मा,
मेरो प्रेम. मेरो मन…।

4th Oct 2021-

Monday, December 6, 2010

Folk literature of the Nepali community


A. Oral

1. Folk literature of the Nepali community

Nepali culture is a composite culture- a culture of Aryans and Mongols, tribes and races in common parlance, of many races in one common language. The Nepali folk culture is not limited to only one country like India or Nepal. In Nepal, there are different tribes and races in the Tarai (Plains), Hills and in the remote mountain areas whose living processes, culture and language have formed their folk literature and developed in their own style. Tibetan language and culture have directly influenced upon the dance-based folksongs of the Tibeto-origin Bhote or Bhutia, Sherpa, Tamang-Gurmi living in the Himalaya sector of Nepal. Tamangs sing sello and dance in the tune of Damphu. They are interested to listen and to make known others the story of Hyang of the Hills. Sherpas used to sing in the rhyming tune of Toshar and Seprudance. In the ridges of Himalayan range and in the middle mountain areas called Mahabharat ranges, Magar and Gurung, Sunuwar and Kiranti, the Mongolians have developed their own culture and traditional folk literature. Their languages have been developed and originated from the Tibeto-Burmese stock. From the Rodhi house (festival house), the Gurungs have developed their Ghatu dance. Sorathi, Pingala and Gopichan are their old and famous dance based songs. Sorathi is popular among the Magars also. ‘Harelo’ is the pure folksong and folkdance of the Magars. The song ‘Roila’ of the Magars is found popular song in Magrat. From the Ruwani i.e., Magar, that the word Roila has come into being, is not limited to them only but became common song of the youths of Tribes and races live in the banks of Shyangja hills and its river side of Andhikhola, Nepal.
There are two branches of Kiratas i.e., Rai and Limbu who think themselves as the permanent settlers of eastern Nepal. The Limbus think themselves as the greater number in the Koshi-Region of the eastern part of Arun River and the Rais, in the western part of the said river i.e., middle Kiratas. They have traditional witchcraft system since their forefathers were Bijuwa and Phedang. ‘Hakpara’ was the old name of their own language. ‘Yarakma’ or paddy dance was very much popular among the Limbus. The Dhimal race, a branch of Kiratas has also developed their folk literaturein the eastern plains. They have ‘Badahwaka’ and ‘Pachali’ in the folkdrama and folk dances in the community dances and Diwali festival. Dhakaleh, Yandoika, Chechebebe, Bhoka, Turia, Potoka etc. are their folk songs. More over this, they have Salvo Sai Sai, a popular folk song of their own. “Lamphepara” is their own popular dance based song, “Narisona” and “Sonakako” are also their popular folksong and rhythmic song. Among the Tibeto-Burmese lingual Mongolians, the folk literature of the Newarese is very rich. In the medieval period, the royal trend of Kathmandu valley was in their hand, which had helped them to foster their art, culture and literature. Newars are conscious indeed to enrich their folk literature in their own language. Their Rabyali, Devidance, Bhairabdance, Lakhe and Gaijatra are famous and popular dances. Mahakali dance is popular among the Jyapus. Nrisingha and Varah dances are still commonly found. Bahramasa, another dance also has been in practice. These all dances and songs have taken the position of religions rituals as because they are impartial with their cultural tradition. Among them, there are lots of songs and tale, which have made alive their historical elements.
There are differences in the folk literature of the Tharus according to their localities as they have been spreading from the east Nepal to the West plains of the country. Even they have adopted some local words and language. The songs like Jhumar, Purvi dhamara, Dhokara, Sakhiya and Hori are dance-based songs of the Tharus. Dhudiya, Dharma Karma, Jatara and Phaguwa (Holi), Jatrageet etc. are based on Jhangada dance. Likewise, the Thalnach dance, based song of the Danuwars is also popularly found among them. In the Southern plains of the country, it is difficult to distinguish the local specialities in the dances and songs of the Bhojpuri and Maithili folk literature being the border area of the two countries- India and Nepal. On the other hand, Bhojpuri lingual people are commonly found in these two countries. The Maithilies adopt their Jhijhiya dance-based song as their old folk song.


Folk Song:

The most descriptive and analytical side of folklore is the folk song, which does not possess any classical rule or clear style. People adopt it because of its popularity and commonness. At present, many intellectuals and thinkers have been attracted to this side. Lila Singh Karma on folk song has said that folk song is pleased with sufferings and tragedy, pleasure and happiness, festivals, rituals and journey. Folk song bears civilization, culture and clean literature of the common people. The Janakavi Keshari Dharmaraj Thapa has stressed on easiness, simplicity, sympathy, musical tenderness, generality and singing tune etc. are seven specialities of folk song. The Madan Purashkar awardee Satya Mohan Joshi in 1936 A.D. directed the composition of folk song with the village culture, art, style, rhyme, tune etc. with the free expression of language and art. In short, folk song can be specialized in the following heads:
(i) Hearing and memory tradition.
(ii) Rhythmic speedity.
(iii) Independent natural expression.
(iv) Place and contemporary expression.
(v) Simple and general singing.
(vi) Impressive fact representation.
A small rhythmic song can express its heart -rendering meaning with a clear idea. The singer regretted and said that it is better to die than to be poor.
    Bachnu bhanda mareko
     jati Garibako jindagi najati 
    (Upadhyaya, 1942: 274)
Nepali folk song can be divided according to rituals, seasons, festivals, agriculture and others. They are given in the chart and some of them described in the pages of the context.
Ritual SongSeasonalFestivalAgricultureShorathiOthers
Birth SongJetheUpavasgeetRopaiMaruniRodi
Mangal geetAshadePhaguDain geetGhatuRoila
Mahol geetSheloBhailoSanskritikSangini
Bhuo geetJhyaure
BhajanBaal geet
The composite culture of Nepali folksong has included nearly 33 folk songs according to different occasions. Most of them are still commonly found and sung in the different states of India. No doubt, the local folk songs have also some influences upon them. Nepali people in Assam specially have already adopted and cultured themselves with the Bihu geet, Bargeet, Biyanaam etc. as their own. Dances of Bodos and Adivasis have also been accepted in their culture. These have enriched them in comparison with others. (. Parajuli, 2057bs: 142)
There are rhythms, tunes and sounds of Mahakavi Lakshmi Prasad Devkota, William Shakespeare, Tician, Turner, Socrates, Kalidas, Sando and Helen Keller in their respective folklores. So, there are vividness and multiple newness. It is not easy to do research and scientific analysis on folk song. Some local and foreign thinkers of folklore have tried to sub-divide it in different divisions. Indian intellectual Ram Naresh Tripathy divided folk song in 11 divisions, Rajasthani folk litterateur Surya Karan Parikh divided in 29 divisions, Ram Chandra Rao divided in 4 divisions and Dr. Krishnadev Upadhyaya have sub –divided folk song in 6 divisions. Like wise culture scholar Kalibhakta Panta has divided it in 9 divisions. These all divisions have been done on the basis of truthfulness and its way of foundation. Thus, they can be summarized as below:
(i) Twelve monthly song,               (Barha maase geet)
(ii) Seasonal song,                       (Ritu geet)
(iii) Fasting and prayer song,        (Brat and bhakti geet)  
(iv) Ritual song,                          (Sanskar geet)             
(v) Dancing song,                         (Nritya geet)
(vi) Song related to labour, and     (Shram geet) 
(vii) Festival song,                       (Utsav geet)
(viii) Others.
    (Parajuli, 2057bs: 143)

Twelve monthly song (Barha maase song):

The songs sung in the whole twelve months of a year are generally common, easy and simple. They are ordinary song, Jhyaure song, Grazing song or Social song. The Jhyaure or chorus is generally love offering song. Such songs are generally sung in the whole year. The songs sung in the whole year are romantic song, chorus and the song of the two parties-boys and girls. There are other songs like the songs of exploitation, torture, domination, lust and motivated song. There may be revolutionary song. In this Jhyaure song, the song of Gandaki region, Sangini sung by women in the east Nepal and the Deuda geet in the far west of Nepal. Sangini (women’s group song and slow dance) is very popular throughout India sung at the time of festivals. Teej geet (festival to welcome sisters by brothers and parents), Bhailo (group song of boys or girls sung at the time of Deepawali), Rateuli (Women’s song and dance at the absence of the groom while in marriage) etc. are popular song and dance of Nepali women.

Ritual song (Sanskaar geet):

In Hindu philosophy religion has an important place. We are bounded by religion and it is our national soul. We cannot come out from this religious ritual from our birth through life to the death. These rituals bear the Aryan culture in one hand and teach us manner and behaviour and good ways to life path. These are not limited to traditional side but with festivals also. They teach us social development from generation to generation and highlight social bond with humanitarian ground uplifting a man to the highest standard. Thus, it is said ‘Janmana Jayate Shudrah Sanskaradwaja Ucchyate’ (reformative culture uplifts a man in his life time from birth to the end of life). Though there are sixteen types of rituals in our code, we follow on ‘Dashkarma’ including marriage, threading (upanayana) and birth. In such situations, the songs sung in happiness and pleasure is very sweet and rhythmic. In this way, rituals are never limited to a particular country only but to the community at large where they born and brought up or settle. In the far west of Nepal, in the east and in India, the rituals more or less are followed in the same manner. The Fag Dhamari in the west Nepal, Magal and Marune in the Karnali region, Charitra and Chachari fall under such rituals. Mohalla geet in marriage (while the bride is going out), and the widow’s pain (in the death of her husband) are followed as rituals.

Magal (Mangal geet):

The word ‘Magal’ has come from Sanskrit language. Mangal means the occasion of happiness or pleasure. Specially at the time of birth of a son (not the daughter), threading (upanayana), sixth day, eleventh day, roofing of a new house, planting or harvesting, husband on the way to outside, are well-wished or prayed to God for their well-being. Such songs sung by women only are known as Mungleri.
(Devkota, 1971:57).

Marsiya (warrior song):

Another branch of this Magal or Mangal is Marsiya i.e., warrior song or Khando. The quality of this song is war like or war loving to win in the battle. Such song is sung to make the soldier brave and warlike. The great and investigator Kalibhakta Panta has said that this process of warlike song was first started from Chittour in India and the Gorkhali warrior first sang such song in their first state Khilung, which was later known as Khalanga, and then it remained as traditional song ‘Khando’ by name. Such songs were used at the war with Bhutan and British soldiers in India. The song welcomes the Goddess Kali with the ‘Khadga’ or weapon in hand inspires the soldiers to be ready for the war. The song praises Dharmavir, Karmavir, Vir and Mahavir, Survir and tells as:
   Jag re khanda jag re jag re jag re 
   Kuireko taukoma twak, twak, twak 
   Bhoteko taukoma thyak, thyak, thyak
The song encouraged the then soldiers to beat on the head of the British Army and Bhutan Army.
(Pant, 1971:148)
Such traditions have been coming through generations of the army, especially at the time of war like situations.
Sagun (Dhamari geet): Sagun is also called dhamari or journey geet. It is sung at the time of starting any new journey, prayer, birth of child, sixth day or upanayana, starting of writing by a child etc. In such occasion, Lord Ganesh is worshipped first to fulfil and win the occasion of the purpose. Sagun is not limited to Nepali community only but it is followed in all other communities in their traditions.
(Giri, 2000:114)

Labour song (Shram geet):

In all agricultural countries, people do hard labour for production. They work all day long and even at night, but feel shortages of food and shelter in their life. Even they have their own universe. Their will and ambitions are bounded. They are happy with their fooding and lodging. Life is clear and clean, pure and unblamed with their strong health, activeness and workmanship. Such life was really attractive to the great poet Lakshmi Prasad Devkota. He sang a simple song –“I am not limited like a small pond, my every side of life is crystal, I am happy if my necessities are fulfilled to create a new universe”. Such labour songs are very popular in eastern India like Assam, Manipur and West Bengal sung at the time of work to relax their tiredness from the regular work. Other such popular labour songs are Ashare geet (song of the plantation), Dhan naach, Jethe geet, Bethi naach, Ghaiya geet etc. They are sung with the musical instruments, which create friendliness among the singers, specially the women.
(Devkota, 1971:76)

Festival song (parva geet):

In festival songs, generally national feeling, customs and traditions, Religious culture, self-identity and prestige are preserved and praised. Since the time of Aryan culture, the trend of festival song has been coming in the Nepali society as a whole. Parva geet are never limited to a particular country. As the people of same community of language and literature, culture and social customs flourish, they preserve festival songs from mouth to mouth with the ideas of religion, politics, society and morality. Among such festival songs Bhailo, Deusi, Bhougeet, Hori, Malshri, Tijegeet etc. are commonly sung at the occasion. Bhailo and Deusire sung at the time of Deepawali while Hori is known as Holi or Phakua. Hori or Holi is celebrated to welcome the New Year i.e., Basanta of the year just after the Basanta Panchami i.e., Saraswati puja. ‘Holika Dahan’ is popular in Bhojpuri society to end the preceding year and to welcome the New Year. This New Year welcome and celebration is not only limited in the Hindu religious country like India or Nepal, but also observed in Greece, France and Tibet. The holi is celebrated for nearly three months- Phagun, Chaitra and Baisakh wearing white clothes. Trumpets and drums are beaten in musical sound while Holi is sung. It can be cited as follows:
Shiva shankara holi khele,
        Hei _________gaurei khele,
        Hei_________ganapati khele,
        Narad munijan venu bajawai,
        Shiva shankarko darvar hori khelai,
                 Hei_________Shiva Shankar holi khelai.
       (Divas, 1957:159)

Malashri (Bhajan geet or hymns):

Malashri or Hymns sung at the time of Durga puja are generally directed with praise to the Goddess Durga for power. On the ninth day of the festival, Goddess Durga is worshipped. Women use to sing Malashri.In Nepali community male also sings it with the musical instruments. The Male Kings were very much fond of this Hymn in Nepal. It is said that the old form of Malashri geet came from Hindi, French, and Urdu, mixed together. Malashri is sung at the time of offering a male goat to Goddess Durga on the ninth day of the Durga Puja.

Bhuo Geet:

This song is very limitedly sung because of the singers of this song use to sing uncivilized words and language. It is a kind of song devoted to Devil, ghost or such spirits. It is also called devilish song. People gather at one place, burn the sparkle of fire after the hymns read out by the priest.

Tije Geet (Women Festivel):

Tije is generally related with the women. It falls in the Bhadra month every year. Married women, who go to their parent’s house, commonly celebrate this Tij festivel at a place or Temple. Married women feel very proudy from young stage to old and express their tragedy or happiness of their home. Thus, the women class in Nepali community celebrate this festival with happiness and pleasure among their parents, brothers and sisters, sister-in-laws remembering their past happiness and present days of trouble at their home.0 (.Joshi, 1985:24)

Brat or fasting (Geet) song:

Our life is religious. In every month, there falls festival or any religious work, which encourages our religious feeling. Religious women pass the day on fasting, take fruits and at right they go to Temple or religious place for praying religious hymns. They engage themselves in prayer meetings. They worship God and Goddess, recite and revise prayer with the musical instruments, offer fruits and flower, sit for common prayer purifying their body and mind. In Hindu ideal Puja, Paath, Jatra, Kirtan, Tirtha or pilgrimage and fasting are very common. Thus, Godly feeling through fasting and worshipping are very common in Nepali society.

Rhishi Panchami song:

Women sing songs on this Rhishi Panchami Day with devotion and full attention to respect the five Rhishis. They sing and move in round rhythmic steps. They feel glad and happiness after this festival.

Hymn (Bhajan):

Bhajan is an expression of prayer song, attracted to God to draw His favour on him. There are nine ways of prayer to God among which Bhajan is an important part of it. Bhajans are of many types and these are the spiritual prayers to God. Bhajans are not limited to any community or section of people. The people of India and Nepal generally sit for such Bhajan especially among the higher and literate class. There are four types of Bhajans:
(i) Chudke Bhajan,
  (ii) Lambari Bhajan,
  (iii) Pravatee Bhajan,
   (iv) Aarati.
Pravatee Bhajans and Aarati Bhajans are generally sung in the morning and evening prayer. Agarvatti, fruits and flowers are offered to god either lord Rama or lord Krishna. Aarati bhajan can be cited as follows:
Aarati jagau Rama, aarati jagau
    Narayanko mandirama aarati jagau
    Sanje lagau sanje lagau
    Aaratiko bela bhayo sanje lagau
    Bela bhayo sanje lagau.
(Offer prayer to lord Rama, offer prayer at the Temple of lord Narayana offer prayer gives tune and give tune the time of prayer give tune).

Dance based song (Nritya geet):

Folk dance coming through traditions since time immemorial is called dance based song or Nrityageet. The difference between folkdrama and folkdance is that in folkdrama, there are characters and stage with their acting or actions while in folkdance, there is song and dance independently. So, folkdrama is an outcome of story and song, music and characters. The Ramayana Balun and Krishna Balun of west Nepal fall in this folk drama while Rateli and Maruni fall in folkdance. In the contemporary Nepali society, Baluns are very rarely staged while Rateli, Maruni are commonly found. Only women at the groom’s house show Rateli dance while he is in marriage but Maruni dance is a dance of men wearing women cloth with the prayer or hymn to God. It is a dance in the month of Kartik adopted as religious dance.
(Thapa & Sabedi, 1982:129).

Elements of Folksong:

In written literature we find many classical rules, tradition and trend but in folksong there is no such binding except its relation with the poetry. Language, feeling and rhythm help songs to be poems with their artistic beauty. There are many elements in folksongs like in poetry, which make them related from folk song to epics. These elements of folksongs in brief are – (i) Heading, (ii) Rhythm, (iii) Feeling (iv) Composition, (v) Traditional Trend, (vi) Artistic beauty and (vii) Language and style. The name or the heading of the song expresses the whole subject matter. The name may quote festival, religion, social or cultural context. The heading may be able to touch the feeling of the inner meaning. Rhythm, on the other hand is the soul of folksong. Rhythm separates folksong and poem and without rhythm folksong is meaningless. The rhythm may be speedy or slowly. In Nepali folksong, both are commonly used. In jhyaure song, there are more than 108 rhythms, Sawai, Bhoteselo, Shlok etc. fall in the folk rhythm while Tije geet, Sangini, Bhajan, Chudka, Sorathi, Khyali and Magal etc. fall in Jhyaure rhythm. Everything of the living being is expressed in the feeling of folksong. Human culture, history, ancient stories, science, religion and philosophy are all highlighted in folksong. The feeling of happiness and sorrow, pleasure and pain, ups and downs, victory and defeats, struggle and friendship etc. come out in the gist of the folk song. Composition is another system of formation of folk song. There are outer and inner compositions of folksong. In the outer composition, there comes language, rhythm and stanza or clause etc. while in inner meaning, there are qualitative development like symbol, sweetness and vision. In the rule of the folksong its length, breadth and depth are symbolized with the brief or analytical trend. In the artistic beauty of folksong, it is always independent and as a literature, it touches the inner mind of the listeners. The language and style of folksong depend upon simple and village life. Simple and concrete words and language used in folksong are always from the ordinary people of the village. Every parts of speech used in folk song are easy, direct, simple and meaningful. Thus, the different elements in folksong clearly express their inter-link to each other. (Parajuli, 2057bs:86).

Nepali Ballad: Division and analysis:

In ordinary sense, the sung traditionally in poetic story is called ballad and there may come many division and subdivision if we divide them. If we divide ballad in the view of size, we find (1) light ballad and (2) medium ballad while in sweetness, it is (1) chivalric, (2) Romantic, (3) pathetic and (4) peaceful ballad. For representation, we can divide it as (1) dance-instrumental ballad (2) dance ballad (3) instrumental ballad and (4) singing ballad. But the main basis of ballad division is subject matter. While ballad is divided in Nepali folk literature, we have to notice to the division of Hindi and English ballads (Yadav, 1973: 53).
In English, the western folkloristic prof. Gumer has as far as possibly tried to include all sides of ballad in six divisions as –(1) ancient ballad (2) herediterial (3) impractical (4) vedic or puranic (5) bordering and (6) forestry ballad. In Hindi folklore or ballad, Dr. Krishna Dev Upadhyaya has divided it into three divisions: (1) love story ballad (2) chivalric ballad and (3) romantic ballad. Likewise, some intellectuals also have divided Nepali ballad. Purna Prakash Nepal’Yatri’, has divided ballad in three divisions
(Upadhyaya, 1942:123).
(1) hear-memorising ballad
(2) Ballad on deeds, and
(3) Feeling ballad.
Dharmaraj Thapa and Hansapure Subedi divided Ballad in (1) devotion ballad (2) chivalry ballad, and (3) pathetic ballad. But in short and as a whole, ballad, on the basis of subject, can be divided as (1) social ballad (2) vedic or puranic ballad, and (3) historical ballad.
As in social ballad we find all humanitarian instinct like manner, behaviour, nature and character, political conspiracy, common belief, love etc., we see family love, dearness and courtesy also in it. Some ballads like ‘Man Koila Rani’, Hari malla Raja, Sharada Bahu is important in puranic gathaa, ‘Nal Damayan Tiko Kathaa, Ramlila, Krishnalila, Balun etc. are famous. Ballads related to religious rituals, affairs and institutions where life philosophy is sung are all found in this division. The origins of Lepcha, ghaatu or sorathi are all include in it. The folksong sung on the chivalrous victory of a hero, National Day of pride and glory, National Day, natural calamities etc. are fall in the historical ballad. The tragedy of the earthquake of 1950 is also a history in human mind. Thus, events related to the history of the nation if sung in rhymes, called historical ballad.

Specialities of Ballad:

Many folkloristic have suggested many divisions or points on specialities of Ballad. All of them can be summarized as belows:
(1) Ballads composed on hearing and memory tradition,
(2) Ballads on simple and general song,
(3) Absence of proof of the composer and lack of origin composition,
(4) Use of locality and lack of suggestions,
(5) Combination of music and dance,
(6) Comic and Tragic story in short,
(7) Repeatition of singing lives and suspicion on historical basis.

Prageet or lyrics:

Happiness or sorrows expressed in lyrical word formation in tenderness is called Prageet or geet or lyrics. In lyrics, there are musical softness, personal attitude or expression, sweetness of words, briefness and unification of feeling. Sonnets, Ode, Mourning song, satirical song, feeling etc. are expressed through lyrics. Nepali lyrics, according to subject or feeling, it is like a poem of romance, devation: tragical, chivalric etc. Bhajans in Nepali, Baluns etc.are common in lyrics. The famous singers of Nepali poetry were Dharmaraj Thapa, Madhab Ghimire, M.B.B. Shah, Kiran Kharel, Chandni Shah, Ratna Shamser etc. Their songs were folk rhythmic, i9ndependent or in Jhyaure style. Rhythm, imagery diction play dominant role in lyrics.
(Upadhyaya, 1942: 128-29)

7.1.2Sawai (Poemic folk tale): Tragic, heroic

‘Sawai’ is another kind of poemic folk tale in Nepali literature. Sawai generally composed at the time of incident or event of natural calamity, war, drought or famine.'
The oldest ‘Sawai’ in Nepali literature is ‘Udaylahari’ composed in 1877 A.D. by Gyan Dil Das in Darjeeling. The Sawai on landside of 1956, war against Bhutan-1895, the landside of Darjeeling-1899, the ballad of Bharathpari –1908, the ballad of Abar mountain, the war of Manipur, Kaniko Sawai of Assam-1933, the ballad of Naga hills, war of Germany, war of Kabul, the ballad of earthquake, Ananda Lahari, Man Lahari, Achhamko Samai, Gorkhalandko Sawai etc. are good examples of Nepali Folktale in poemic style.
There are three stages of Nepali Kathaa: -

(1) The first stage of Nepali Kathaa -1776-1901 A.D.
(2) The second stage                         - 1901-1934 A.D.
(3) The third stage                             - 1934-till today.
After 1901, there have been seen Nepali Newspapers and magazines, nearly 22 in numbers. They were from Kathmandu, Darjeeling, Benaras, Kalimpong, Dehradun and Shillong. The Gorkhapatra, Gorkhe Khabar Kagat, Sundari, Madhabi, Upanyas Tarangini, Chandra, Gorkhali, Chandrika, Gorkha Sansar, Tarun Gorkha, Sharada, Uday, Nebula, Parivartan and Gaon Sudhar Patrika. Many folktales were published in them.
The modern folktale originates from the nineteenth century in the western literature. There were no folktales or folk ballad in the western literature till 19th century. Like the easterns, the westerns go back to the time of Iliad and Oddesy for the origin of the folktale. In France, America, London or Russia, generally the trend of folktale starts after the year 1803 in the name of ‘Short Tale’ and at a time, it changed its name as ‘Short Story’.
Tukka (Idioms)
‘Tukka’ in Nepali folklore is a short form of words, with a good meaning to satire to a person, thing or situation. They are formed on the historical basis, cultural mythical, economical, blind faith, humanity and or birds and animal etc. Tukka is generally related to events, business, works, etc.Tukka keeps relation with movement, action realization,physique,scheme,household works,different elements of nature like –sky,fire,wind,water,earth,day and night,birds and animals,plant and trees,etc.As a whole,the total life-style of people is extracted by Tukka is the short form of words.some example can be mentioned as –(1) Paani Hunu(total spoil),(2) Alukhanu(to become failure),(3) Jibro Chabaunu(to become unclear in comment),etc. Tukkas are generally meaningful satirically expressed in prose words or style. They are equal to Muhabra in Hindi.

Gaonkhane Kathaa (Riddles):

Riddles are some kind of question and answer represented among the children. They are asked question and replies demanded. They are equal to quiz competitions of the present age. To make children conscious about their society, locality and country, some traditional of question are asked in old pattern such questions are asked in rhythmic style in prose. These are equal to ‘prahelika’ or ‘paheli’ in Hindi.

B. Written Literature:

1. History

The oldest manuscripts of Nepali language mean the oldest written manuscript of the Nepali language are given below :-
Related toName of the ManuscriptsYear in AD
1. King Damu PalCopper scripts (Tamrapatra)981
2. Sangram MallaCopper scrips (Tamra patra)1089
3. Bharshiv MallaCopper scripts (Tamra patra)1197
4. Ashok ChallaCopper scripts (Tamra patra)1255
5. Ashok ChallaStone scripts1280
6. Ashok ChallaCopper scripts1321
7. Punnya MallaCopper scripts1328
8. Prithibi MallaRecord1356
9. Abhaya mallaRecord1391
The serial numbers 1, 2 and 3 are oldest documents of Nepali literature even then they are not proved factfully. In this regards, the copper script of Ashok Challa, probably of 1255 is the proof and first found script of the Nepali language. Besides these, the stone script of (1260-1261) found in Dailekh District of Bheri Region, the stone script of Achlam District in1280, the copper script of 1321 in Gorkha District, the copper script of Punya Malla in 1328 found from the Lamas of Gumbas in Himalaya, the record of Prithvi Malla of 1356 declared in Sinja and the records of Abhay Malla found in 1391, etc. were, all records in the Dev Nagari script in Nepali language. These all records were about the gift of land, administration and memory, written in Sanskrit, Nepali and Tibetan language

Some written expressions or literature (Bangmoy) in Nepali language:

There are some written collections or books in Nepali language. The collections found are as bellows:
Name of the bookwriteryear
1. Bhaswatiunknown1400
2. Raja Gaganiraj ko jatraunknown1493
3. Khandyakabyaunknown1591
4. Panchaparilekunknown1597
5. Jatkarma paddatiunknown1591
6. Graha udaysta1591
7. Bejparikhsa1643
8. Jarotpati chikitsha1716
9. Mashanidan wa aoushodharasayan1713-1743
10. Prayachittapradip1723
11. Nripalokee1724
This Bhaswati (1400) is the first book of Nepali language until now. Only two pages have been found of this book. Though the writer’s name is not mentioned in these pages, yet it is imagined that the collection is of probably 1400 A.D. The book is about astrology translated from Sanskrit language to Nepali language. The origin language of the book is Sanskrit and it was translated into Nepali language at the same side The above all books were mainly about astrology, manner and behavior, ideas, medicine etc. They were written in prose style.

The beginning stage of Nepali literature.

Division of Nepali literature (According to chronological order)

The two divisions of literature are poetry literature and prose literature. Nepali literature has also been coming in these two divisions since the ancient age. The Nepali literature can be divided according to age as follows:
(i) Beginning period first stage (from the beginning up to 1883)
(ii) Medieval period (1884-1934)
(iii) Modern period (1934 to still)


Nepali poetry<

Since the time of unification of Nepal (1743) up to the age of Motiram Bhatta 1883 is called the beginning period of Nepali literature. In this period both poetry and prose were developed. From beginning of this period up to 1814 the age was war like, was known as War Trend or Veerdhara period. Likewise, the period from 1815 to 1883 A.D. i.e., the ending period of war was known as the period of Bhaktidhara. The poetry literature of this period expresses mainly the Veerdhara and Bhaktidhara, which is found in less in the prose literature.
In the poetry literature of this period, there are seen both Chivalry and Pray Trend primarily. The creators of these two trends and the composition of poetry and their specialities have been discussed below:
Chivalry (Martial poetry): Marsiya (Veer geet):
Since the time of Nepal unification up to the Segauly Treaty of 1815-1816 A.D., the period is known as Chivalry poetry. In this period Chivalrous poetry was written. This period of war and the extension of the state, and the poetry valorous. This period describes the Chivalrous and the war like heroes for which the period is known as heroic age and the poetry full of valour. There were some peomic descriptions about hereditary and friendship. The poets and the poetry were as follows:
Poet(Title of Poetry)
(1) Suvananda DasPrithvinarayan Shah
(2) Shaktiballav AryalTanahu Bhakundo
(3) Udayananda AnyalPuranovalakoarji, Kulvarnan Kavita, Vetal pachishi.
(4) Sundarananda VandaAshanadi.
(5) Radhavallav AryalShadyako Kavit
(6)Yadunath PokhrelGorkha Sena Varnan (Bhimsen Thapako Stuti) Krishna CharitraVarnan.
(7) Ram Chandra Padhaya RegmiBandhuvinaparastanka
(8) Gumani PantaPutkarkavita (Dhanya Gorkhali Raja)
These are above poetry are of Chivalrous Age except the poetry of Ramchandra Padhya Regmi. Hymns (prayer poetry): Bhakti or Aradhana:
The period after Segauly Treaty from 1815 and up to the time of Motiram Bhatta- 1884, is called the period of Hymns or Prayer poetry.
The war like period and the extension of state boundaries were slowly going to the decreased and the Chivalry was cool down. The Nepali mentality, at that time was coming down from the heroic prayer to Godly prayer. This trend of prayer was of mainly- Krisnabhakti, Rambhakti and the poetry of the Santa poet to non-Godly prayer i.e., Nirgunbhaktidhara.

Krisnabhaktidhara (Krishna devotion trend):

The period after Segauly Treaty
Among the different images of lord Vishnu, the poetry of lord Krishna centralized, were known as the Kirsnabhaktidhara. The poets of this trend sang and praised lord Krishna. The poets and the poetry of them were as follows:
PoetPoetry (composition)
(i) IndirashGopikastuti (1827)
(ii) Vidyaranyakeshari Aryal (1806-1855)Yugalgeet, Draupadi stuti.
(iii) Vasanta Sharma Luitel (1803-1890)Sri Krishna Charita. (1827)
Samudra Lahari. (1844)
(iv) Virshali panta 1803Sri Krishna Charita,
Saras premawali.
(v) Hinvyakarani Vidyapati (1793)Raghbaramasa (1829)
Sat Raag (1837)
Sat Nayika (1837)
Geet Vani (1837)
Geet Govinda (1837)
(vi) Patanjali Gajurel 1837-1887Balgopal Vani
Jaimini Bharat,
Bokshi Charitra,
Adhyatma Ramayana Balun.
The dominant poet of this Krishna Bhaktidhara is Vasanta Sarma Luitel.

Ram Bhaktidhara (Ram devotion trend):

The poetical compositions written depending upon Ram devotion are called Ram Bhaktidhara or trend .The centralized credit of this trend is the Ramayana of the poet Bhanubhakta Acharya .The poets of this trend have given the message of Ram devotion. The poets and their poetries of them are as follows:
PoetPoetry (composition)
1. Raghunath Pokhrel (1811-1861)Sundar Kanda
2. Bhanubhakta Acharya (1814-1868)Bhaktamala (1853)
Prashnottar Mala (1853)
Ramayana (1853)
Vadhusiksha (1862)
Ramgeeta (1868)
The central poet of Ram devotion trend is BhanuBhakta Acharya. His Ramayana has united Lingual and Cultural Tradition.

Non-devotion Trend (Nirgunbhaktidhara :)

The poetry written on non-existing image of God is non-devotional Trend. The poets of this trend have advanced the message of non-existing image of Lord Krishna, Lord Rama etc. suggested to worship the non-existing image of Atma and Paramatma.

The poets and the poetry of them are as follows:

PoetPoetry (Composition)
1. Shashidhar (1747-1851)Vairagyamvar,
2. Agamdil Das (1793-1868)Sorah Nirgun Kavita
3. Agandadil Das (1781-1878)Panch Nirgun Kavita.
4. Gyan Dil Das (1821-1883)Uday Lahari (1877)
Bhajan Sangraha.
The chief poet of Nirgunbhaktidhara is Gyan Dil Das.
Besides these poets of devotional period, there are other poets like Chhabilal Nepal, Kshadananda Lohani, Vaikaran Nepal, Hari Das, Rajiblochan Joshi, Lal Bahadur; Nar Bahadur etc. have composed poetry in ballad style taking other different feelings or trend.

Some specialities and bases of the beginning periodical poetry.

• Specially heroic and devotional poetry composition and ordinarily the lower or simple poetry composition,
• Praise and prayer to the Rulers in the heroic poetry and the existing and non-existing image of Lord Krishna and Lord Rama and the description of non-living soul,
• Creative poetry composition of heroic feeling and mainly devotional poetry and the translations of puran, religious books and the translations of eastern philosophy,
• Poetry composition in folk rhythm and religious rhymes,
• Use of mixed and unclear language.
In the whole beginning period as well as the devotional period, poet Bhanu Bhakta Acharya is the reknown poet among them.

Prose of the Beginning age:

In the prose writings of this Age, there is not found any speciality of literary trend. The prose writings in the Year 1783 to1883 are called the prose of the Beginning Age though it is not like the prose of heroic and prayer poetry. The authors and their creations and specialities are given below:
AuthorCreation (book)
1) Shaktiballabh AryalMahabharat Birat Parb (1770)
Hashya Kadad (1798)
2) Sri Prithvinarayan Shah.Divyopadesh (1774)
3) BhanuduttaHitopadesh Mitralabh (1876)
4) Rambhadra Padya RegmiLakshmidharma
5) Daivagya Jyoti NarshinghTulshi Stab (1876)
6) Bhabanidutt PandeyMudrarakshas (1811)
7)Banivilas PandeyBagmati Phulstambh Abhilekh (1811)
8) UnknownPinashko Katha (1815)
9) UnknownDashkumarcharit (1818)
10)- MundiTin Ahanharu (1819)
11) UnknownSwasthani Bratkatha (1878)
12) UnknownBahatra Sudhako Katha (1823-33)
13) UnknownSirampurko Bible (1827)
14) VijayanandMahabharat Birat Parb (1729)
15) UnknownAdi Parb (1832)
16) UnknownRamaswamedh (1833)
17) UnknownDash Kumar Charit (1836)
18) UnknownBetal Panchabinsati) 1836)
19) UnknownTantra Khyan (1836)
20) Sundaranand BandaAdhyatma Ramayan (1836)
21) UnknownBrihatkatha Tika (1850)
22) Ganga Prasad PradhanNepali Bible (1883)

Middle Age of Nepali Literature m

The beginning of the Middle Age of the Nepali Literature starts at the time of Ranas reign. The Ranas being luxurious, their palacial culture also reached.the same status for which the culture of Nepali literature also became romantic. The second half of the Rana reign was strongly opposed. In such situation, the trend of Literature too, was diverted to classicism, Intellectualism, humanitarianism and independent expressionism. In this period, sufficient prose and poetry creations were written vividly.

Poetry of Middle Age

Two trend of literature i.e., romanticism and classicism are found in this period. The authors, their creative specialities of these two tren are mentioned below:

(I) Romantic Trend :

The trend of romanticism starts with the appearance of Motiram Bhatt to the publication of Bhaktisindhu. As the social changes started with the palacial culture of the Ranas, their luxuriousness and entertainment, poetry too changed its trend from prayer to romantic feeling. Poetry became romantic and of entertainment with the situation changes. The poets and their creations are as follows:
1) Motiram Bhatt (1866 - 1896)Pikdut (1888),
Panchak Prapancha (1891)
Gajendra Moksha (1891),
Tijko Katha (1891),
Prahlad Bhakti Katha (1891),
Usha Charitra (1898),
Manodweg Prabah (1900),
Motiram Bhattaka Gajalharu (1981),
Other fragments etc.
2) Rajiblochan Joshi (1848 - 1929)Kedarkalpa (1891),
Buddhi chanak (1893),
Patibrata Dharma (1895),
Bismat Harsha Tarangini (1911),
3) Sikharnath Subedi (1864 -1948)Brihad Krishna Charitra (1898)
Shringardarpan (1898)
Barhamase (1898)
Dhyut Mudrashtak (1915)
4) Ramprasad Satyal (1878 - 1963)Birpatni (1898)
Banmala (1923)
Patibrata Masha Devi (1928)
Mahasati Anusuya (1928) etc,
5) Pahalmansingh Swanr (1878 -1934)Ankendusekhar (1899)
Pikdut (1902)
Premamritbachan Sangrah (1903)
Khor ra hashya (1975)
6) Krishnaprasad RegmiRambha Shuk Sanbad (1883 - 1928)
Barhamase (1903)
Ritumala (1903) Shringar Mala (1903)
Kamini Birah lahri (1903)
Pattha Patthik ko sPriti
Prabandha (1915),
Devi Bhagwat (1929).etc.
7) Sambhu Prasad Dhungel (1889 - 1929)Panchak Prapancha (1913),
Chandrapratap Barnan (1913),
Dhyutshatak (1916),
Krishna Charitra (1921)
Barhamashe (1922),
Sambhu Bhajanmala (1923)
Pinashko Binash (1926),
Baishyaa Barnan (1926),
Anya Phutkar etc.
8) Baijnath Sedai (1893 - 1955)Upadesh Sahashri (Part-1) (1917)
Shri 3 Chandrabhakti Pushpanjali (1925),
Bichar Shatak (1935),
Upadesh Sahashri (part-2 and3(1939). etc
9) Lakshmidutt Pant (1865 -1905)Phutkar Kavitaharu.
10) Kedarnath Khatiwada (1878 - 1946)Shringar Darpan,
Besides the above poets, there were many other poets during this period. The representative poet among them was Motiram Bhatt.

Poets and their Specialities in Romantic Trend :

 (i) Primarily romanticism and secondarily, prayer, ethics and suggestive,    
 (ii) Continuation of Translation and tranformation from Sanskrit,
 (iii) Descriptive,
 (iv) Repetition of alphabets and words and creation of rhythms at the ending,
 (v) Incoming words (Hindi,Urdu, Persian, English and Newari) mixed using, etc.
It is noteworthy that not only the personal poet but the organisation of the poets in collective form started the composition of poetry, printing and publication at the same time.

2) Classical Trend :

With the bar on suktisindhu and prior to the arrival of Devkota, is called the period of classical trend in Nepali poetry. The poetry of this period left the romanticism and adopted classicism and cleanliness to become intellectual, clean and rule-binding. In fact, the classical rule cleaned the existing poetry and so, the poetry of this trend was called the poetry of cleanliness. The chief poets and their creation of this trend are as follows:
i) Kulchandra Gautam (1875 - 1958)Alankar Chandrodaya (1818)
Raghavalankar (1959)
ii) Lekhnath Poudyal (1884) - 1965)Satyakali Sambad (1919)
Laalitya )part-1)(1922)
Ritu Bichar (1934)
Taruntapashi (1953)
Laalitya (part-2) (1964)
Kavi Shiromani Lekhnath
Poudyal ka Pratinidhi Kavita (1984)
Lekhnath ka Pramukh Kavita (1989),
Some phutkar.etc.
iii) Dharanidhar Koirala (1886) - 1979)Naibedh (1920)
Spandan (1947)
(iv) Mahananda Sapkota (1896 - 1978)Manlahari (1923)
Apungo (1950)
Bishal Nepal (1951)
Hamro Nepal (1951)
Annu Asha, Aansu (1951)
Aante (1951)
v) Somnath Sigdhal (1884 -1972)Aadharsha Raghar (1948)
Putkar Kabita, etc (?)
vi) Madhab Prasad Devkota (19 - 1962)Hussu Pathik (1953)
Phulbari (1962)
Ruru Gaurav (1973)
vii) Balkrishna Soma (1903 -1981)Aago Ra Paani (1954)
Chiso Chuhlo (1958)
Balkrishna Somako Kavita (1958)
viii) Chakrapaani Chalishe (1883 - 1958)Chakrakavita Tarangini (1958)
Even now some of the poets compose poetry in this trend. The most important poet of this trend is Lekhnath Paudel.

Specialities of the Classical Trend:

(1) Rejection of romanticism and follow-up of classical trend,
(2) Excellent representation of the eastern poetry,
(3) Composition of epics and long poetry (khanda kavya) after a trend of fragmented poetry.
(4) Expression of social, cultural and the feelings of renaissance,
(5) Special exposition of nature,
(6) Balance of feeling and style,
(7) Use of folk-rhythm and classical rhythm,
(8) Follow -up of spoken language,
(9) Use of clean and concrete style

Prose of Middle Age:

In the beginning prose of this period, mystery, romance, exaggaration etc. are seen with the romantic feeling. On the other hand, the creations of this period include classicism, socialism and originality. The prose writings including story and novels, fables, tales, drama, essays, criticism etc. are found in the creations of this period. All these creations are identified as follows:

1. Nepali Tale and Fables in the Middle Age:

The period of Nepali Tale starts with ‘Birsikka’ written and translated by Harikrishna and Sivadutta Sharma respectively. The translation was published in the year 1946. It had wide publicity the time prior to the publication of ‘Rupmati’ in the year 1990. The chief authors and their creations are mentioned below:
1) Shivdutt SharmaBirshikka (1889).
2) Harihar SharmaBhagwat Bhakti Bilashini (1889)
3) Chiranjibi PoudyalSukharnab (1893),
Premsagar (about 1893)
4) UnknownBetal Pachishi (1895)
5) Sadashiv SharmaNaredra Mohini (1897),
Bokshi Charitra (1902),
Mahendra Prabha (1902),
Laksharanjit Sphatik
Stambha (1902)
Sundari Bhushan (1906)
6) Nardev PandeyNalopakhyan (1906),
Marina Charitra (1902),
7) Girishballav JoshiBir Charitra (1899),
Bahadur Charitra (1900)
Prarabdha Darpan (1906),
Adityasen Chadrakala (?)
8) Tithaprasad UpadhyayaBedantasar :Naya Upanyas(1903)
9) Dwarikanath UpadhyayaYamapanchak Prapancha (1906),
10) Ramprasad SatyalKatabati (1907),
Birmati (1908-09)
11) Rashik Bitashini (1907)
12) K.N.S.Ek Upadeshik Katha (1908-09)
13) Rammani AA.D.Patibratya Prabhar (1909),
14)Bigyan Bilash (Padmanav Sapkota)Priyambada (1915),
Dr. SuryaPrasad(about1915),
Banga Bijeta (aboutt 1916)
15) Pahalman singh SwanrEk lakh Rupiyako Chori (1917)
16) Pratiman SinghMahakal Jasoos (1918)
17) Sambhu Prasad DhungelBartop (1919)
Premkanta (1919)
18) Baidyanath AcharyaDayaki Bhabi (1922)
19) Lahure (Suryabikram Gywali)Deviko Bali (1926)
20) Rupnarayan SinghAnnapurna (1927),
21) Rhidhi Bahadur MallaSarmistha (1928)
22) UnknownBilap (1928),
23) Premsingh AaleyKaraniko Phal (1929)
24) Ramsingh GorkhaEuta Garib Sharkiko Chhori (1929)
25) Ambalika DeviRajput Ramani (1933).
In the royal news paper ‘The Gorkha Patra’ these tales are already published. The creations published in the Gorkha Patra -- Pativrata Charitra (1902), Pratyagaman (1910), Krodh (1910), Mala (1911), Dharmatmaa (1911) Badla (1912) Sukul Gundako Kahini (1922), Hirako aunthi (1913),Swargako Sancho (1914), Adbhut Kumar (1914), Chaaturi (1916), Budako Vivah (1917), Naishad Kavya Vichar (1920), Kathacharitsagar (1922) etc. are the important writings.
Besides the publications in the Gorkha Patra,there were publications from local and outsides like --- Sundari (1906), Madhabi (1908),Chandra (1914) Gorkhali, Chandrika (1917), Tarunbhumi (1922), Gorkhasansar (1926), Tarun Gorkha (1928) etc. were published in different papers and journals. Of course, all literary forms and bindings are not sufficiently found in these creations.

Chief Tendencies and Specialities:

(1) Some creations in shape and size are nearest to novels,
(2)Besides translations, original creations were also available like Mahendra Prava, Vircharitra.
(3) More creations were about spy and mystery etc.,
(4) Creations based on social subjects were found like - Yamapanchak Prapanch as the first publication,
(5) Harmony of Nepali Character and Nepali atmosphere in the publication like-‘Vircharitra’ where Nepali atmosphere is exposed.

14. Nepali Drama in Middle Age

The period of the drama ‘Shakuntala’ written by Motiram Bhatt and prior to the arrival of Balakrishna Soma is called the Middle Age of Nepali drama. The chief dramatists and their dramas are as follows:
1) Motiram BhattShakuntala Natak (1887-91)
Priyadarshika (1959)
Padmawati (uncomplete)
Kaliram Chandrasen(incomplete)
Hush Afroz Aaram Dil (Uncomplete)
Gulshanobar (uncomplete)
2) Medini Prasad RegmiGyanbhangatarangini (1903)
3) Pahalman Singh SuansAtalbahadur (1905)
Bimla Devi (1975)
Bishnumaya Natika (1976)
Lalu Bhasha (1976)
4) Sambhu Prasad DhungelRatnawali (1915)
Shakuntala Natak (1916)
Malati Madhav (1969)
5) Kedar Samsher ThapaDurgabhakta Tarangini(1915)
Bikramobarshi (1925)
6) Lekhnath PoudyalBhartriharinirbed (1917)
7)Sambhu Prasad DhungelBirendrakeshari Aryal
Jibeshwar Rimal and
Jhumaklal Mishra
8) Surya Bikram GyawaliShyami Kumari (1917-18)
9) Parashmani PradhanSundar Kumar (1921)
Buddha charitra (1924)
10) Ramprasad SatyalPhoolma Bhamra Arthat BhaktaPrahlad (1928)

Besides the above dramatists and the dramas, there were other dramatists and dramas found to be seen.

The Tendencies and the Specialities:

(1) Most of the dramas were translated from Sanskrit,
 (2) Emphasis of Stories than the Character,
 (3)All dramas were Ideal,
 (4) Dramas were based on Sanskrit dramatic rule i.e., shapnashilpa.
 (5) Excessive mystery, artificiality and bulkiness in dramas,
 (6) Dramas were thoughtful and excited:
 Nepali Essays in Middle Age
Nepali articles like essays were widely published in the Gorkha Patra and other papers in the year 1901. Among the other papers and journals of the time were Gorkhe Khabar Kagaj (1901), Sundari (1906), Madhabi (1908) Chandra (1914), Gorkhali (1915), Chandrika (1917), Janambhumi (1922), Gorkha Sansar (1926), Nepali Sahitya Sammelan (1932), etc, helped in developing essays. The essays of the time were of two types -- Subjective and personal. A brief description is given below:
1) UnknownAghi Murkha Pachhi
Buddhiman (1902)
2) UnknownBasantavarnanam (1904)
3) ManyBeshari (1906-07)
4) Devidutt SharmaUchit Charcha (1908)
5) Rammani A.D.Kavita Riti (1908-09)
6) Ramprasad SatyalMaya (1908-09)
7) UnknownNidra (1909)
8) UnknownMatribhasha ko Unnati (1909)
9) UnknownDukh Ra Sukh (1910)
10) UnknownBhalaie (1911)
11) VenkateshwarSapna (1913)
12) Baidyanath SedaiHemanta Rituvarnan (1914)
13) Suryabikram GyawaliSocrates Ko Bahash (1914)
14)Parashmani PradhanPrem (1918)
Mahendra Mandali (1918)
Samay (1919)
Kavita Ko Phal (1920)
16) Bednidhi SharmaJatiya Rogko Achuk Aushadhi (1929)

Chief Tendencies and Specialities:

(1) Most of the essays were descriptive and analytical,
(2) Beginning of the personal essays like -- Mahendra Malli,
(3) Reformative views,
(4) Vividness of subjects
(5) Negligence of preservation and organisational weakness.

Nepali Criticism in Middle Age:

The beginning of the criticism of the Nepali literature was started in the Middle Age. The beginner of this criticism is Motiram Bhatt.
Critics   Critical Creation

1) Motiram Bhatt  Kavi Bhanu Bhakta Acharya Ko  
   Jiwan Charitra (1891)

2) Kulchandra Gautam Alankar Chandrodaya (1918)

3) Shambhuprasad Dhungel   Kavitako Phal (1917)

Chief Tendencies and Specialities :

(1) Autobiographical representation,
(2) Discussion of relish
(3) Classical view.

Modern Nepali poetry:

Chief Trend and Specialities:

The Modern period of Nepali poetry is the time of liberal trend started with the year 1991. This trend stood as revolt poetry against the pre-existed classical and cleanliness trend. The poetry of this trend decorated the poetry with the scientific and economical trend and made suitable with the age and evaluated them by new shape. The modernised quality of the poetry during the period was consciousness of writings and newness of the style. This age is devided into three terms:
1) Liberal Tren  1938 to 1959
2) Practical Trend  1960 to 1978
3) Contemporary Trend 1979 to till date

Liberal Trend

The main period of this trend in Nepali poetry is with the arrival of Devkota (1934) prior to (1960) the change of the existing reign. The liberalism gave importance on the feeling with the arrival of Lakshmiprasad Devkota in Nepali poetry. Deep thoughtfulness, nature love, patriotism, humanitarianism, local and regional picturesque gave special identification of this period .Some important poets and their poetry are given below:
1) Bijoy MallaAnuradha (1961)
Kumari Shobha (1982)
2) Sankar KoiralaKhaireni Ghat (1961)
Kausi ko Pharsi (1966)
Natho (1967)
Dui Driver(1968)
Ma Piun Akha bar ko (1968)
Durdamaniya (1968)
College Girl (1968)
Doshandh (1970)
Nadi Geet Gaunchha (1971)
Ek Anjali Shradhajali (1974)
Tin Palta (1975)
Hellambu Mero Gaon (1975)
Ratbhari (1976)
Srimati Heroin (1976)
Aalo Paalo (1977)
Aansu Ko Khahare (1979)
Ma Phela Pardina (1981)
Bhusyaha (1986)
Euta Purano Ghar (1997)
3) Tulshi Ram KuwarRane (1961)
Jiwan (1963)
Sangharsha (1967)
Abhijan (1969)
Ghamchhaya (1973)
Netopari (1976)
Sangjyog (1988)
4) Ravindra Kumar MoktanWarako Bhoko Bhut (1962)
Duipat ek Suiro (1965)
Kalilo Phul Gulaphko (1968)
Nirmanko Nimitta Bhanera (1971)
5) Chandra Prasad RaiPrem Maya (1963)
6) Narad Kumar ChhetryBiyogi (1963)
Jiwan Euta Bagdo Lahar (1977)
7) Byathit SipahiMa Vivas Chhu (1963)
8) Manbahadur DahalMa Ratako Tara (1963)
9) Indra Bahadur RaiAaja Ramita Chha (1964)
10) Dhuswan SayamiGanki (1964)
Agni Garbha (1985)
Kharaniko Vasti (1989)
Deepa (1989)
11) Nanda Hangkhim Lash (1964)
Arko Anuhar (1971)
12) Suresh Rai Bhranti (1964)
Thihiko Rat (1970)
Mero Hajurko Katha Sune Pachhe Kasto Lagchha (1973)
13) Prakash Kovit Seema (1964)
Sangam (1964)
Arko Janma (1964)
Huri (1979)
Shirishko Phul (1965)
14) Parijat Mahattahin (1968)
Baisko Manchhe (1972)
Toribaribata Ra Sapnaharu (1975)
Parkhal bhitra Ra bahira (1978),
Autarmukhi (1978),
Anido Pahad Sagai (1982)
Paribhasit Aankhaharu (1989),
Boni (1991)
5) K.B. Nepali Mero Ghar Mero Sansar (1965),
Samarpan (1966)
Tasvir Ek Ratko (1971),
16) Harihar Sastri Durdasha (1965),
17) Bhadra Thapa Awannati (1967)
18) Yudhir Thapa Jindagi (1965)
Adhuro Maya (1967),
19) Devnath Devsa Tuphan (1965)
20) Gopal Gurung Shesh Yatra (1965)
21) Subhas Ghising Nilo Choli (1965)
Parishthiti (1966)
Alo Chihan (1967)
Lung Kung Camp (1969)
Uo Mari Are (1969)
Kahan (1970)
Kalo Makuro (1971)
Chot (1971)
Khokro Manchhe (1972)
Kaccha Bato (1979)
Shubha Kamana (1980)
22)Taranath Sarma Ojhel parda (1966)
Mero Katha (1966)
Suli (1973)
Jhajhalko (1988)
Nepal Dekhi America Samma (1992)
23) Ashit Rai Drishtihin Drishti (1966)
Tyo Himali Yo Yauban (1966)
Samapti Euta Yug : Euta Sansar (1969)
Dhunga Euta Jiwan (1969)
Sigrate Ra Dhowa (1969)
Jindagiko Sangharsha Astitwako Khoj (1970)
Vichara Patjasto Jharne Jiwan (1971)
Bishringkhalata (1973)
Naya Kshitijko Khoj (1980)
24) Lakshmi Prasad DevkotaChampa (1967)
25) Dhruba Chandra GautamAntya Pachhi (1967)
Baluwa Mathi (1971)
Dapee (1976)
Chief Tendencies and Specialities of the Liberal Trend: 

(1) Beginning of liberal trend in against of hard cleanliness of classical rule,
(2) Inner and outer exposition of nature’s vividness.
(3) Revolutionary and rebellious feeling,
(4) Satire and resentment to age-old inconveniences and distortion,
(5) Political renaissance,
(6) Liberal, progressive and humanitarian feeling, 
(7) Beginning and expansion of prose-poetry composition,
(8) Womanish feeling, newness and love feeling.
(9) Nationality, patriotism and expression of amity to the lower classes,
(10) Easy and automatic language style,
(11) Rhyme, alliteration and musical depthness.

Practical Trend:

The important period of this trend was the beginning of the Panchayat system (1960) prior to the declaration of the public mandate (1978).Being the political changes and easy and liberal expression in the poetry was objected for which the poets used vividness in it. In such situation the realization of truth could not be exposed directly, but by the practical trend, it was to be expressed indirectly and a turning way. This compulsion created the third trend in poetry as well as other practical poetry.

Poets of the Practical Trend and their poetry are as follows:

1) Mohan Koirala (1926)Surjya Daan (1965), Lek, (1966)
Palang Number (1971)
Mohan Koirala ka Kavita (1973)
Noon Sikharharu (1974)
Sarangi Bokeko Samudra (1977),
Himchuli Raktim Chha (1978),
Nadi Kinaraka Majhi (1981),
Rhitu Nimantran (1983),
Nilo Maha (1984),
2) Mohan Himanshu Thapa (1936) (1926)Khukuri Mathiko Ek Choita Badal (1973),
3) Dwarika Shreshtha (1940)Shitako Thopa (1958)
Dwarika Shreshthaka Kavita (1976)
4) Krishna Bhakta Shreshtha (1940)(1926)Krishna Bhakta
Shreshtha ka Kavita (1976)
5) Upendra Shreshtha (1935)Nimto (1960)
Panchayat (1961)
Upendra Shreshthaka Kavita (1982)
6) Madan Regmi (1937)Madan Regmika Kavita (1977)
7) Jagdish Shamsher Rana (1929)(1926)Narsimha Avatar (1980)
8) Iswor Ballav (1929)Aagaka Phulharu hun, Aagaka
Phulharu hoinan (1992),
Euta Saharko Kinarma (1977),
Samantar (1981),
Kasmaidevaya (1985)
9) Bairagi Kaila (1939)Bairagi Kailaka Kavita (1974),
10) Kumar Nepa (1933)Charkeko Parkhal (1962)
11) Banira Giri (1939)Euta Jiudo Jang Bahadur (1974),
Jiwana: Thaymaru (1977)
Mero Anishtha (1984),
12) Tulashi Divas (1946)Tulashi Divas Ka Kavita (1993),
Besides these some poets wrote poetry in this trend.

Chief Tendencies and Specialities of Practical Trend:

(1) Unclear, hard, difficult and complexity in poetry, 
(2)  Intellectual, fiercical and symbolical expression,
(3) Devoid sensibility in the existing life, meaninglessness, displeasure and inconveniences in expression,
(4) Ultra realistic, realistic and representation of difficult feeling.
(5)Inspiration to the dormant feeling and representation of the inner mind, 
(6) creation of long poetry,
(7) Inquisitiveness to new language and use of style, etc.

Contemporary Trend :

The period after the declaration of the public comment in 1979, is called the contemporary trend. The beginning of this trend was with the street poetry revolution -1979. Later on, at the time of people’s revolution there was seen revolutionary poetry.

The Chief poets of the contemporary trend are as follows:

Toya Gurung, Krishna Bhushan Bal, Min Bahadur Bishta, Bimal Koirala, Dinesh Adhikari, Bishnu Bibhu Ghimire, Biswa Mohan Shreshtha, Hemanta Shreshtha,Ashes Malla, Pramod Malla, Navaraj Karki, Jivan Acharya, Saru Bhakta, Bimal Nima, Binod Ashrumali, Manjul,Ramesh Khakurel, Binay Rawal, Shailendra Sakar, Manju Kanchuli, Benju Sharma,Bikram Subba, Ramesh Tuphan,Fanindra Nepal, Kanad Maharshi,Purna Viram,Gopal Parajuli,Shyamal,Rabiman Lamjel,Gobinda Giri, ‘ Prerana’, Biplav Dhakal, Vidhan Acharya, Biyogi Budathoki, Nayanraj Pandey, Jiwan Thing, Norden Rumba, Mohan Dukhun, Navasapkota, Abhinash Shreshtha etc,
Even now much Nepali poetry is found written in this trend.
Specialities and Importance of the Poetry 

v1) Primary period (from the beginning to 1883),
(i) At first the poetry of heroic feeling and secondly, the composition of the poetry of liberty,
(ii) Most of the poetry were translated and some other were origin in   creation,
(iii) Use of folk rhyme and classical rhythm,
(iv) Uncrystal language.
2) Middle period (from 1884 to 1934)

(i) Romantic feeling in the 1st half of the period and importance of classicism in the 2nd half, 
(ii)Tendencies of the origin poetry creation, 
(iii)Use of necessary imagination,
(iv) Diversion to the use of crystal language,
(v) Excessiveness of classical rhythm.
Modern period (From 1934 to till date):

(i) Reasoning and Scientific argument in the poetry,
(ii) Mutual opposition and inquiry of newness,
(iii) Revolutionary feeling,
(iv) Age value and expression of humanitarianism
(v)Vividness of literary isms (liberalism, progressive ideas, realism, inconveniences, etc.) in poetry,
(vi)Beginning of prose poetry and its expansion,
(vii) Beginning of practicability,
(viii)Excessiveness of symbolism,
(ix)Use of new language style

Modern Nepali Short Story.

Chief Trend and Specialities:

The systematic writing of modern Nepali story starts in 1935. The stories reached literary status at this time. The period is divided into two divisions:

(1) First Stage:

This stage starts with the publication of ‘Naso’ story. Its wide circulation was prior to the political change of 1960.’ Naso ’and other stories of the later part represent the systematic Nepali story in this period. The stories of this period bear social, psychological and progressive feelings of the age. The chief story writers of the age are mentioned below:
Story writerFirst StoryStory collection
1) Guruprasad Mainali (1900 -1971)Naso (1935)Naso (1936)
2) Bisheswor Prasad Koirala (1915 -1981)Chandra Badan (1935)DoshiChasma (1949)
Shwet Bhairabi (1987)
3) Balakrishna Soma (1902 -1981)Paraighar (1935)
4) Ganga Bikram Sijapati (1919 - 1991)Ke Ho Ta ? (1935)Megha Mallar (1990)
5) Indra Sundash (1918)Sapanako Samjhana (1936)Rani Khola (1960)
6) Hridaychandra Singh Pradhan (1915- 1959)Bidushi Madhabi (1936)Usko Aansu (1960)
Hridaychandra ka
Kathaharu (1968)
7) Pushkar Samsher (1987)Swartha Tyag (1938)Puskar Shamsher ka Katha(1901 - 1961)
8) Bhawani Bhikshu (1914 -1981)Manab (1938)Gun Keshari (1953) Maiyan Saheb (1960)
Aawarta (1967)
Avantar (1977)
9) Lakshmiprasad Devkota (1909 - 1959)Unko Mane (1939)Lakshmi Katha Sangraha (1975)
10) Tariniprasad Koirala (1922 - 1974)Amako Hriday (1939)
11) Gobinda Bahadur Malla (1922)Tyashko Bhale (1940)Katha Sangraha (1946)
Kathai Katha (1956)
Prem ra Mrityu (1982)
12) Bijoy Malla (1925)Das Rupiya (1940)Ek Bato Anek Mod (1969)(1925)
Parewa ra Kaidi (1977)
13) Shiv Kumar RaiPrakriti Putri (1944)Frontier(1951),
Khahare (1976),
Bada Dinner (1987),
Siva Kumar Rai Ka Sat Katha (1994)
14) Dev Kumari Thapa (1958)Patan (1946)Ekadashi (1955),
Jhajhalko (1928) ,
Seto Biralo (1964)
Tapari Pralaye Pratiksha (1987)
15) Daulat Bikram BistaUo Gayo (1948)Pradarshani (1966),
Galako Lali (1968)
Chhaya (1974)
Ghauko Satra Chakka (1978),
Aansu Tyasai Tyasai Chhachalkinchha (1992)
16) Badrinath Bhattarai (1908 - 1995)Parivartan (1949)Pauranik Kahani (1953)
Nepali Eitihashik Kahani (1964)
Baidik Kahani (1964)
17) Ramesh Vikal (1928)Gariv (1949)Birano Deshma (1959)
Naya Sadakko Geet (1962),
Aaja Pheri ArkoTanna
Pherinchha (1967),
Euta Budo Violin,
Aasabariko Dhunma (1968),
Urmila Bhauju (1986),
Shav,Malik Ra Sahashra Buddha (1986),
18) Poshan Pandey (1932 - 1991)Chor (1954)Aankhi Jhyal (1966),
Manas (1966),
Hunma Pareko
Dobharu (1976),
19) Madhab Bhandari (1936)Maita (1956)Gaonghar (1968),
Bhandarika Kathaharu (1989)
20) Indra Bahadur Rai (1938)Ratbhari HuriBipana Katipaye (1960),
Chalyo (1959)
Kathashta (1970),
Kathputaliko Man (1989)
21) Mohan Raj Sharma (1940)Ekko Ek HaatChyankhe Dharna (1967)
Logyo Sunya (1959) Korra (1983)
Baikhari (1997)
22) Maya Thakuri (1948)Baulahi (1959)Najureko Jodi (1973)
Gamalako Phul (1976)
Sanghu Tarepachhi(1982),
In this period, there were other story writers also. They are -- Bhimnidhi Tiwari, Sodhwaj Bishta, Sankar Lamichhane, Rupnarayan Singha, D.P. Adhikari,Sankar Koirala, Muktinath Timilsina, Matrika Prasad Koirala, Balakrishna Pokhrel,Krishna Bam Malla, Chakrapani Chalise, Keshvlal Karmacharya,Peter J.Karthak, Jagat Chhetri,Kumar Gyawali etc

(2) Second Stage :

The period after 1960 i.e., the time of political change to this, is called the second stage.After the change of 1960, easy and liberal expressions were banned which created the practical trend. Not only the practical stories were written at this time, but other realistic, ultra realistic, symbolical, sexualism, Suralism, inconventialism, Progressive, Psychological, Contemporary stories were also written. The story writers of both old and new stage created stories suitable to the ages. The main story writters of the age are:
Parijat, Madan Mani Dixit, Prema Shah, Benju Sharma, Parsu Pradhan, Indra Bahadur Rai, Mohan Raj Sharma, Dhruba Chandra Gautam, Manu Brajaki, Biswambhar Chanchal,Maya Thakuri, Krishna Prasad Sarvahara, Bhaupanthi, Sailendra Sakar, Khagendra Sangraula, Shyamprasad Sharma, Harihar Khanal, Dorhnacharya Chhetry, Churamani Regmi,Sanat Regmi, Dhruba Sapkota, Purna Viram,Gopal Parajuli, Gobinda Lohani, Ashesh Malla, Padmawati Singha, Bhagirathi Shreshtha, Kumud Devkota , Manju Kanchuli, Bijoy Chalise, Ismali, Nandaram Lamsal, Narayan Dhakal, Gobinda Giri “ prerana ”, Rhishiraj Baral, Indrakumar Shreshtha ‘ Sarit ’ , Rajendra Parajuli, Bijoy Bajimoy, Ramhari Paudel, Hari Adhikari, AmarShah,Manikram Raj Sharma, Nakul Silwal, Binoy Kumar Kasaju, Kavita Ram, NirmohiVyas, Sanjoy Thapa, Anukramraj Sharma, Hari Gobinda Luitel, Rajab, Abinash Shreshtha, Roshan Thapa, etc.

Chief Trend and Specialities of Nepali Story:

There are different trends in Nepali story at present. Different trends of the tendencies are briefly discussed below:

(1) Ideal realistic Trend

For availability of ideals, realistic stories are included in this part. Characters and incidents are realistic and their objectives ideal. Probaly, Guruprasad Mainali was the beginner of this trend. Balakrishna Soma, Pushkar Shamsher, Ganga Vikram Sijapati, Maya Thakuri,etc. are other writers of this trend.

2) Liberal Trend:

Those stories which have the superiority of feeling fall in this trend. Rup narayan Singha, Achha Rai ‘Rashik’, Siv Kumar Rai etc. are important story writers of this trend.

3) RealisticTrend:

The stories representing reality of social life fall in this trend. The writers representing social realities in their stories are Lakshmi Prasad Devkota, Daulat Vikram Bishta, Bhimnidhi Tiwari, Devkumari Thapa, Parsu Pradhan, Manju Brajaki etc.

4) Psychological Trend:

Psycho-analytical and sexual stories fall in this trend. The beginning of this trend starts with Bisweswor Prasad Koirala. The other writers of this trend are Bhawani Bhikshu, Gobinda Bahadur Malla ‘Gothale ’, Bijoy Malla, Poshan Pandey, Prema Shah, etc.

5) Progressive Trend:

Social realistic stories fall in this trend. Stories written on the bases of Marxism are called progressive. Besides Hriday Chandra Singh Pradhan as the beginner of this trend, there are other writers like Parijat, Ramesh Vikal, D.P. Adhikari, Khagendra Sangraula, Narayan Dhakal, etc.

6) Practical Trend:

Ultra-realistic, inconventialistic, Surelistic, non- existential, Contemporary stories fall in this trend. The contemporary style of Indra Bahadur Rai was followed by other story writers like Dhruba Chandra Gautam, Mohanraj Sharma, Gopal Parajuli, etc.

Modern Nepali Novels: Chief Tendencies and Specialities:

Nepali Novels during this period reached its real status and was established as an special literary side. Necessary elements of novels were accumulated in the creation of this age. This period is divided into two stages:

(1) Primary Stage:

This period of novel starts with the publication of ‘Rupmati ’in 1934. Its wide circulation was prior to the political change in 1960. Modernisation of Nepali novels also begins with this period. The chief novelists and novels are as follows:
1) Rudra Raj PandeyRupmati (1934)
Champakaji (1936)
Prayaschitta (1938)
Prem (1948)
Herpher (1992)
2) Bishnu Charan ShreshthaSumati (1934)
Bhishma Pratigya (1936)
3) Rup Narayan ShreshthaBhramar (1936)
4) Kashi Bahadur ShreshthaUsha (1938)
Vachan (1945)
5) Bhawani BhaktaSinghaJoubanko Aandhi (1939)
6) Tukraj Padamraj MishraRaj Bandhaki (1939)
Ram Krishna Kuwar Rana (1942)
Ridi Ra Rachi (1991)
7) Santa Shamsher Ja.Ba.Ra.Dukhi Jiwan (1941)
8) Ramprasad TandukarBhagya Chakra (1944)
9) Shova Chandra UpadhyayaPataliputra (1946)
10) Lainsingh BangdelMuluk Bahira (1947)
Maiti Ghar (1948)
Langadako Sathi (1951)
Rembrant (1966)
11) Achha Rai ‘ Rashik ’Lagan (1948)
Dovan (1948)
12) Diamond Samsher RanaBasanti (1949)
Seto Bagh (1973)
Prati Bandha (1977)
Satprayash (1981)
Anita (1986)
13) Muktinath TimsinaMatritwo Ra Dharmaputra (1950)
Gaph (1954)
Ko Achhut (1954)
14) Mohan Bahadur MallaUjeliChhama (1951)
Mayarani (1952)
Panchayat (1953)
Samayako Huri (1958)
Bhumari (1959)
15) Khadga Bahadur SinghaBidroh (1) (1954)
Bidroh (II) (1956)
Huriko Chara (1958)
16) Hridaya Chandra Singha PradhanSwasni Manchhe (1954)
Ek Chihan (1960)
17) Purna Prakash Nepal ‘ Yatri ’Jauban ra Vivah (1955)
Aandhimoy Jiwan (1955)
Kulchieko Kopila (1955)
Bishnumaya (1959)
Rupantar (1979)
Pardabhitra (1986)
Ek Jhutto Pote (1989)
18) Bhubaneswor KoiralaBaikunthako Mahal (1956),
Satya Shandes Ra Vidhawa Jiwan (1956)
19) Chandra Sekhar SastriBhrikuti (1957),
20) Lil Bahadur ChhetryBasai (1957),
Atripta (1969),
Brahmaputra Ko Chheu Chheu (1987)
21) Siva Kumar RaiDak Bangala (1957),
22) Liladhwoj ThapaMan (1958),
Shanti (1958),
Purva smriti (1959),
23)Indra SundashMangali (1958),
Niyati (1982),
24) GobindaBahadur malla ‘ Gothale’Pallo Gharko Jhyal (1959),
Arpana (1996),
25) Daulat Vikram BishtaManjari (1959),
Ek paluwa Anekaun yam (1969)
Chapaieka Anuwar (1973),
Bigrieko Bato (1976),
Thakeko Aakash (1977),
Bhok Na Bhittaharu (1981)
Jyoti Jyoti Mahajyoti (1988)
Himal Ra Manchhe (1988)
26) Krishna Singha MoktanCharan Dhuli (1959)
Ashesh yatra (1964)
Jiwan Parikrama (1967)

(2) Second Stage:

The second stage or period of Nepali Novels is marked after the political change in 1960 and, as the freedom of expression was decreased. The novelists adopted different ways of practice. The practice is still continued. The chief novelists and their novels are given below:
Kumari Shobha (1982)
1) Bijoy MallaAnuradha (1961)
2) Sankar KoiralaKhaireni Ghat (1961)
Kausi ko Pharsi (1966)
Natho (1967)
Dui Driver(1968)
Ma Piun Akha bar ko (1968)
Durdamaniya (1968)
College Girl (1968)
Doshandh (1970)
Nadi Geet Gaunchha (1971)
Ek Anjali Shradhajali (1974)
Tin Palta (1975)
Hellambu Mero Gaon (1975)
Ratbhari (1976)
Srimati Heroin (1976)
Aalo Paalo (1977)
Aansu Ko Khahare (1979)
Ma Phela Pardina (1981)
Bhusyaha (1986)
Euta Purano Ghar (1997)
3) Tulshi Ram KuwarRane (1961)
Jiwan (1963)
Sangharsha (1967)
Abhijan (1969)
Ghamchhaya (1973)
Netopari (1976)
Sangjyog (1988)
4) Ravindra Kumar MoktanWarako Bhoko Bhut (1962)
Duipat ek Suiro (1965)
Kalilo Phul Gulaphko (1968)
Nirmanko Nimitta Bhanera (1971)
5) Chandra Prasad RaiPrem Maya (1963)
6) Narad Kumar ChhetryBiyogi (1963)
Jiwan Euta Bagdo Lahar (1977)
7) Byathit SipahiMa Vivas Chhu (1963)
8) Manbahadur DahalMa Ratako Tara (1963)
9) Indra Bahadur RaiAaja Ramita Chha (1964)
10) Dhuswan SayamiGanki (1964)
Agni Garbha (1985)
Kharaniko Vasti (1989)
Deepa (1989)
11) Nanda HangkhimLash (1964)
Arko Anuhar (1971)
12) Suresh RaiBhranti (1964)
Thihiko Rat (1970)
Mero Hajurko Katha Sune Pachhe Kasto Lagchha (1973)
13) Prakash KovitSeema (1964)
Sangam (1964)
Arko Janma (1964)
Huri (1979)
Shirishko Phul (1965)
14) ParijatMahattahin (1968)
Baisko Manchhe (1972)
Toribaribata Ra Sapnaharu (1975)
Parkhal bhitra Ra bahira (1978),
Autarmukhi (1978),
Anido Pahad Sagai (1982)
Paribhasit Aankhaharu (1989),
Boni (1991)
5) K.B. NepaliMero Ghar Mero Sansar (1965),
Samarpan (1966)
Tasvir Ek Ratko (1971),
16) Harihar SastriDurdasha (1965),
17) Bhadra ThapaAwannati (1967)
18) Yudhir ThapaJindagi (1965)
Adhuro Maya (1967),
19) Devnath DevsaTuphan (1965)
20) Gopal GurungShesh Yatra (1965)
21) Subhas GhisingNilo Choli (1965)
Parishthiti (1966)
Alo Chihan (1967)
Lung Kung Camp (1969)
Uo Mari Are (1969)
Kahan (1970)
Kalo Makuro (1971)
Chot (1971)
Khokro Manchhe (1972)
Kaccha Bato (1979)
Shubha Kamana (1980)
22)Taranath SarmaOjhel parda (1966)
Mero Katha (1966)
Suli (1973)
Jhajhalko (1988)
Nepal Dekhi America Samma (1992)
23) Ashit RaiDrishtihin Drishti (1966)
Tyo Himali Yo Yauban (1966)
Samapti Euta Yug : Euta Sansar (1969)
Dhunga Euta Jiwan (1969)
Sigrate Ra Dhowa (1969)
Jindagiko Sangharsha Astitwako Khoj (1970)
Vichara Patjasto Jharne Jiwan (1971)
Bishringkhalata (1973)
Naya Kshitijko Khoj (1980)
24) Lakshmi Prasad DevkotaChampa (1967)
25) Dhruba Chandra GautamAntya Pachhi (1967)
Baluwa Mathi (1971)
Dapee (1976)
Aakash Bibhajit Chha (1978)
Katel Sirko Chotpatak (1980)
Alikhit (1983)
Dehmukta (1983)
Nimitta Nayak (1986)
Avatar Bighatan (1987)
Sworgiya Hira Deviko Khoj (1988) Ek Saharma Ek Kotha(1989)
Upsamhar Arthat Chautho Antya (1991) Jyaga (1993)
Dubidha (1995)
Agnidutta + Agnidutta (1997)
Phulko Aatank (1998)

Chief Tendencies and Specialities of Novels.

In Modern Nepali novels, many trends and flows are seen suitable to the age. Chief trends or flows carrying different trendencies are discussed briefly:

1) Ideal RealisticTrend:

This trend begins with the publication of the Novel ‘Rupmati’ in 1934. The chief tendencies of the Novels of this period were to expose social realities of the time.Characters and incidents of these types of novels are social and realistic, their objectives are idealistic. Novelists and novels of this trend are mentioned below:
1934RupmatiRudraraj Pandey.
?SumatiBishnu Charan Shreshtha
1936BhramarRup Narayan Singha
1938UshaKashi Bahadur Shreshtha
1975AagatBhawani Bhikshu
1978Gham kaPaila haruDha.Cha.Gotame.

2) Liberal Trend:

his trend begins with the publication of the novel ‘ Bhramar ’.Love, beautiness, deep feeling as well as marvellous accumulation of daring description of works, imagination, decorated language and sufficiency of idealistic richness were the chief specialities of the liberal trend. Novelists and novels of this trend are mentioned below:
1936BhramarRup Narayan Singha
1948Lagan, DobhanAchha Rai ‘Rashik’
1957Dak BungalaSiva Kumar Rai
1963JiwanTulshi Ram Kuwar
1964AsheshYatraKrishna Singh Moktan.
1968Kalilo Phul Gulaph KoRabindra Kumar Moktan

3) Social Realistic Trend:

This trend begins with the Publication of the novel ‘Muluk Bahira’ in 1947. The objective of the social realistic trend was to expose pictures of society and life. Novelists and novels of this trend are mentioned below:
1947Muluk BahiraLain Singh Bangdel
1951Ujeli ChhayaMohan Bahadur Malla
1956Baikuntha Ko MahalBhubaneswor Koirala
1957Basai Lil BahadurChhetry
1958Huriko CharaKhadga Bahadur Singha
?ManLiladhwoj Thapa
?MangaliIndra Sundash
1961RaneTulshi Ram Kuwar
1964Aaja Ramita ChhaIndra Bahadur Rai
1966Ojhel PardaTaranath Sharma
1970LilamJagadhish Ghimire
1975Aadi PurushBhau Panthi
1978KaragaarBanira Giri.

4) Progressive Trend

This trend in Nepali novels begins with the publication of ‘Swasni Manchhe’ in the year 1954. The Chief specialities of these types of novels were to emancipate the lower classes fighting against the exploitation done to them. The reformative steps were attempted on the basis of Marxism. Novelists and novels of this trend are mentioned below:
1954Swasni ManchheHriday Chandra Singh Pradhan
---Ko AchhutMuktinath Timsina
----Bidroh (1)Khadga Bahadur Singha
1956Purva SmritiLiladhwoj Thapa
---ManjariDaulat Vikram Bishta
1961KhaireniGhat Sankar Koirala
1968AasmayaD.P. Adhikari
1968Mahattwa hinParijat
1970Chetangko Pahilo DakKhagendra Sangraula
1982Seto AatankIsmail
1982ArambhaNanda Ram Lamsal
IndrawatiRamesh Vikal

5) Psychological Trend:

This trend of Nepali novels begins with the publication of ‘Pallo Gharko Jhyal’ in 1959.The chief specialities of this trend were to expose feelings of the mind, dormant and sexual analysis. Novelists and novels of this trend are as follows:
1959Pallo Gharko JhyalGobinda Bahadur Malla, ‘Gothale’
1961AnuradhaBijoy Malla.
1968TinGhumtiBisweswor Prasad Koirala
1969SarpadangshaTarini Prasad Koirala
1977Pipe No-2Bhawani Bhikshu

6) Practical Trend:

The practical trend in Nepali novels begins in 1963. Story and artistic newness are the chief specialities of this trend. Novelists and novels of this trend are mentioned below:
YearNovelsNovelistsPractical Trend
1964Aaja Ramita ChhaIndra Bahadur RaiContemporay Practice.
1965Shisirko PhulParijatExistential Practice
1973Chapaieka AnuharDaulat Vikram BishtaInternationalism
1973Seto BaghDimond ShamsherHistorical Realistic practice/tr>
1976DapeeDhrubachandra GautamExistential uneasy Practice
1977Pratek Thaun PratekPeter J.KarthakArtistic Symbolism Manchhe
1979Kalo SuryaBharat JangamNon-Novels
1998Phulko AatankDhrubachandra GautamDefinition novels

Modern Nepali Drama: Chief Trends and Specialities:

The period of modern Nepali drama is demarcated with the publication of ‘Mutuko Byatha’ in 1929. The important Dramas and the chief Dramatists are follows:
1) Balakrishna SomaMutuko Byatha1929
Mukunda Indira1929
Andha Beg1939
Bhakta Bhanu Bhakta1943
Prem Pinda1952
Amar Singha1953
Swasni Manchhe1976
Uo Mareki Chhaina1978
2) Bhim Nidhi TiwariSahanshila Sushila1938
Siddhartha Gautam1958
Chautara Lakshminarayan1967
Mata Ko Maya1970
3) Lakshmi Prasad DevkotaSabitri Satyavan1940
Krishi Bala1964
4) Gopal Prasad RimalSaman1946
Yo Prem1958
5) Gobinda Bahadur Malla ‘Gothale’Bhusko Aago1956
Chyatieko Parda1959
Dosh Kasaiko Chhaina1970
6) Bijoy MallaKohi KinaBarbad Hos1956
Jiudo Lash1960
7) Phanindra Raj KhetalaBijoy1962
8) Basu ShashiTin Natak1966
Sabaithok Garnu Parchha1982
9) Madhab BhandariGharjam1972
Aamako Aakanshya1974
10) Man Bahadur MukhiyaAni Deorali Runchha1973
Pheri ItihasDohrinchha1975
Krosma Taansieko Jindagi1977
11) Dhruba Chandra GautamTyo Euta Kura1973
12) Mohan Raj SharmaYatanama Chhatpataeka haru1982
Jemant / Yama1984
Baikuntha Express1982
13)Saru BhaktaChyambar BhitraYuddha:Uohi Gyas1983
Shishirko Antimdin Haru1998
14) Ashesh MallSadak Dekhi Sadak Samma1989
15) Gopal ParajuliSadak Pachhi Sadak1989
16) Abhinash ShresthaAshasthama Hato Hata1993
17) Shrawan MukarungYalamber1996

Chief Trend and Specialities of Drama:

There are different trends and flows in modern Nepali drama. The chief trends and flows carrying different tendencies are summarised as follows:

(1) Liberal Trend:

Dramas of deep thoughts are included in this trend. Love, Imagination, excessive feeling, marvellous action of the characters and their heroic activities, ideals etc.are the main features of this trend. The chief dramatists of this trend are Balakrishna Soma, Bhim Nidhi Tiwari, Lakshmi Prasad Devkota etc,.

(2) Social Realistic Trend:

The real representation of the social life generally falls in this trend. The main objectives of social realistic trend are to expose social realities, the true pictures of the society, etc. The chief dramatists of this trend are Gopal Prasad Rimal, Madhab Bhandari, Basu Shashi, Man Bahadur Mukhiya etc.

(3) Psycholgical Trend:

Representations of different psychological aspects fall in this trend. Dormant feelings of human mind, insensibility, sexual side, child mind etc. are exposed in the drama of this trend. The dramatists of this trend are --Gobinda Bahadur Malla ‘Gothale’ and Bijoy Malla.

(4) Practical Trend:

Use of newness both in stories and arts are found in this type of drama. Existentialism, inconventialism, ultra realism, symbolism etc. are the chief specialities of the practical trend. Mohan Raj Sharma,Dhruba Chandra Gautam, Saru Bhakta,Ashesh Malla,Gopal Parajuli, Shrawan Mukarung etc. are the chief dramatists of this trend.

Chief Tendencies and Specialities:

(i) Most of the dramas are in origin writings, 
(ii) Subjects of the dramas are social,
(iii) Realistic representation,
(iv) Psycho-analytical beginning,
(v) Theatrical provision,
(vi) Use of different art and style, and
(vii) Beginning of modernisation.

Modern Nepali Essay: Chief Trends and Specialities:

The period of writing subjective essays of Balakrishna Soma and personal essays of Lakshmi Prasad Devkota falls in the modern age. The chief essayists from the beginning till date are as follows:
1) Balakrishna SomaTyo1935
Prakritik Jiwan1935
Atma Biswas1935
2) Naredra Mani Aa.Di.Sansar Ek Natyasala Ho1935
3) Bodh Vikram AdhikariKavita Mata Sanga Mero Ganthan1935
Phalame Aunthi1935
4)Silwal PanditBedanta Bibad Ko Misil1935
5) Prem Raj SharmaPanditji Ko Chithi1935
6) Lakshmi Prasad DevkotaAshad Ko Pandra1936
Lakshmi Nibadha Sangraha1945
Darim Ko Rukh Nera1974
7) Hriday Chandra Singha
Pradhan Bhuswarga1946
Tish Rupiyako note1947
Kura Sancho Ho1954
(8) Sankar LamichhaneHamro Samajma Nariko Mulya1946
Abstract Chintan Pyaj1967
Godhuli Sansar1970
Bimba Pratibimba1971
Sankar Lamichhane1976
9) Bhesh Raj SharmaKe Kasto1946
10) Bhim Nidhi TiwariPandra Prabandha1947
11) Basudev Sharma LuitelBhut Chhaina1949
12) Badrinath BhattaraiPacchis Pravandha1951
13)Shyam Prasad SharmaBahinilai Chithi Bhag I/td>1951
Bahinilai Chithi Bhag II1955
Tan, Timi,Tapai,Hajur1957
Mero Aama1966
Thunuwako Dairy1981
(14) Purna Prakash NepalBarnashram Byabashtha Kina1951
Mero Muktinath Yatra1966
Setiko Nalibeli1977
Badlindo Gham Chhaya1981
(15) Achha Rai ‘ Rashik ’Saptakoshi1954
(16) Kamal DixitYasto Pani1956
Kalo Akshyar1960
(17) Keshav Raj PindaliKhai Khai1959
Pheri Ultai Milyo1975
Byangai Byanga1989
(18) Balakrishna SharmaPyaro Sapana Ra Anya Lekh haru1960
Asta Bakra1978
(19) Balakrishna PokhrelCollege Star Ka Nibandhai Nibandha1960
Ukush Mukush1972
Tesro Ek Mukhe Rudrakshya Ko Khoji1983
(20) Taranath SharmaNamaste1961
Jamarka haru1968
Belait Tira Baralinda1969
Jiwan Ko Chhat1973
Patal Prawas1985
Shraddhaka Suman1987
21) Bhairab AryalKaukuti1962
Joy Bhudi1965
Prabesika Nibandha1970
22) Janak Lal SharmaNepali Nibandhawali1962
Kautuk Man Dolpo1974
Bhumikai Bhumika1979
(23) Sridhar KhanalNamari Swarga Dekhinna1963
(24) Ram KumarPandeyKhyal Khyal1966
Sanchai Chha1972
Babu Ko Bihe1973
Bahra majja1973
Sing Na Puchhar1979
Rash Rang1979
(25)GhatotkachSharma Domaha1967
(26) Krishna Chandra Singh
Pradhan Malik1969
Anam Satya1986
Paila Anganma Tekera1990
(27) ShyamGotame Mapain1969
Kayena bacha1978
(28) Chudamani RegmiSadhana1973
(29) Bipin Dev DhungelBhirako Chindo1974
(30) Krishna Prasad GyawaliPipalko Chhahari1975
(31)Ramesh Vikal SatSurya Ek Phanko1977
Nil Giri Ko Chhayama1993
(32) Devi Chandra ShreshthaHumla Bolchha Man Sarovarma1980
Kathmandu Bahira1981
(33) Mohan Raj SarmaInterview Specialist Mr.Jhappu
Singh Double M.A.1981
Puchhar Ko Pato1983
(34)Narendra Raj PaudelGhar bhitra Ko Gaijatra1982
Chhudungko Jangalma Haraunda1990
(35) Krishor NepalChinta ka Kshyanharu1982
Ekkaisau Shatabdika Nibandha1997
(36) Ram Mani Risal AkshyarPachhi Akshyar1984
Bhijeko Palpal1988
Mero Chetana Ko Antayatra1995
37)Choleswor SharmaMa Ta Aprilphul Bhayechhu1985
(38) Meghraj ManjulSamjhanaka Pailaharu1987
Jaane Hoinata Dai Aalapot1990
(39) Ganga Prasad UpretiSmritika Chhal Haruma Italy1987
(40) Modnath PrashritKehi Sanskritik Nibandhaharu1990
(41) Rajendra SubediKhali Shishi Purna Kagaj1992
Paila Aphnai Paribeshma Tekera1996
42) Madhab Prasad PokhrelMero Manchhe1997

Chief Tendencies and Specialities:

(1) Systematic writings of subjective and personal essays
(2) Subjective and reconstructive vividness and newness,
(3) Wit & humour and Satirical essays,
(4) Development of travelling essays and their expansion,
(5) Beginning of progressive essays and their expansion,
(6) Development of practical essays.

Chief Trend and Specialities:

(1) Subjective Trend:

Description, Analysis and criticism are the chief tendencies of this trend. The chief essayists of this trend are --Bala Krishna, Kamal Dixit, etc.

(2) Personal Trend:

Personal and self-style descriptions are the chief peculiarities of this trend. The dominant essayists of this trend are ---Lakshmi Prasad Devkota, Hriday Chandra Singh Pradhan, Keshavraj Pindali, Ram Krishna Sharma, Achha Rai, ‘Rashik ’Krishna Chandra Singh Pradhan, Sankar Lamichhane, Sridhar Khanal, Balakrishna Pokhrel, Taranath Sharma, Bhairab Aryal, Chudamani Regmi, Rammani Risal etc.

(3) Wit & Humour and Satirical Trend:

Wits & humour and satirical descriptions are the chief tendencies of this trend .The chief essayist of this trend are -- Prem Raj Sharma, Hriday Chandra,Singh Pradhan, Keshav Raj Pindali, Sridhar Khanal, Choleswor Sharma, Ram Kumar Pandey, Narendra Raj Paudel, Shyam Gotame, Nirmohi Vyas, etc.

(4) Tour & Travelling Trend:

The description of tour and travelling are chief tendencies of this trend. The chief essayists of this trend are --- Taranath Sharma, Devichandra Shreshtha, Yadav Kharel, Meghraj Manjul, Ganga Prasad Upreti, Kaji Roshan, etc.

(5) Progressive Trend:

The chief objectives of this trend are to expose social realities.Important essayists of this trend are Hridaychandra Singh Pradhan, Achha Rai ‘ Rashik’, Krishna Singh Pradhan, Shyam Prasad Sharma, Modnath Prashrit, Meghraj Manjul etc.

(6) Practical Trend:

Subject, art, and rewriting with newness are its chief tendencies. The essayists of this trend are Sankar Lamichhane, Mohan Raj Sharma, etc.